This article identifies and discusses the differences and similarities between environmental education (EE) and education for sustainable development (ESD). Three historic documents--the Belgrade Charter, the Tbilisi Declaration, and Agenda 21 -- provide goal statements, recommendations, and general descriptions for comparison. Other questions such as 'Is EE becoming ESD?' and the debate over what to call ESD are also addressed. The authors address and clarify some misconceptions inherent in the debate over definitions and the naming of ESD. The need to clarify and refine the broad concept of ESD is useful and necessary; however, the energy expended in other efforts--suggesting that specific terms and rhetoric related to sustainability concepts, which were originally translated from many different languages, should be accepted globally--is damaging and fruitless. The authors suggest that collaborative, locally appropriate action in both EE and ESD is more useful than an either-or debate over whose terminology should be adopted.
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