In the United States carbon capture and storage as a means of emissions mitigation is moving towards commercial implementation. In anticipation of large numbers of CCS sites coming online it is important to understand wells as potential leakage pathways and identify existing technologies that can measure and monitor the integrity of wells that are exposed to CO2. Well integrity is important because wells and the annuli and pathways that may exist within them can act as leakage pathways for CO2 back to the surface or as conduits for leakage between formations. Studies related to the integrity of wells have been conducted on well cements created in both the laboratory and in the field. This paper will discuss recent laboratory and field work, the differences between the results of the two types of experiments, and how the results of the two are not contradictory but are due to differing conditions between the lab and the field. This paper will also discuss how the results of field measurements can be used to identify the types and combinations of tools that may be used to detect wellbore integrity problems in future.
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