This study analyzed water and soil quality and environmental impacts of shrimp farming in the southwestern coastal region of Bangladesh. Shrimp farming in the region is very traditional in nature where two culture systems viz. shrimp-rice and shrimp-only are being practiced, which are characterized by lower production, repeated stocking, irregular feeding, and fertilizing. Water quality in both farming systems was found suitable for optimum growth and survival of shrimp (Penaeus spp.). The level of 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD(5)) in both systems even in canal water was within the recommended level provided by the Government of Bangladesh which is less than 5 mg/l. Therefore, effluents of shrimp farms in the study area did not show any nutrient pollution on the surrounding environment. However, saltwater intrusion has caused many problems like loss of agricultural production, reduced availability of fodder for livestock, and fresh water for domestic uses in the coastal region. The findings of this study confirmed that shrimp farming using saline water have long-term effect of soil salinization. As a result, it poses a real threat toward sustainability of coastal shrimp farming as well as coastal development in Bangladesh.
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