The role of cytokinin N-glucosylation and degradation by cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX, EC 126.96.36.199) in response to application of exogenous auxins (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid [2,4-D] and alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid [NAA]) and cytokinins (N-6-benzyladenine [BA] and trans-zeatin [Z]) was investigated in de-rooted seedlings of Raphanus sativus L. cv. Rampouch. Both auxins applied for 24 h at 1 and 10 muM concentration increased N-glucosylation of exogenously applied [H-3]dihydrozeatin (DHZ) by up to 20%. The level of endogenous 7N-glucosides (of Z, isopentenyladenine [iP] and DHZ) was increased by 2,4-D and NAA at 10 muM concentration by 28 and 23%, respectively, the level of Z being decreased by 90 and 59%, respectively. 2,4-D and NAA suppressed CKX activity ca. by half. Exogenous cytokinins Z and BA applied at, 1 and 10 muM concentration stimulated 7N-glucosylation of [H-3]DHZ (by up to 40%). BA both at 1 and 10 muM, increased the level of endogenous Z by up to 35% and that of 7N-glucosides by up to 27%. BA application also strongly stimulated CKX activity (by up to 180%). Feeding with 1 and 10 muM Z resulted in ca. 100-fold and 2000-fold increase of Z level, respectively. The main metabolite, Z7G, was increased ca. 6-fold and 60-fold, respectively. Levels of Z 9-glucoside (Z9G), trans-zeatin riboside (ZR) and Z O-glucoside (ZOG) were elevated to lesser extent. As compared to BA, Z had only negligible effect on CKX activity. Adenine (1-500 muM) was preferentially 7N-glucosylated inhibiting competitively 7N-glucosylation of [H-3]DHZ. At high concentrations (100-500 muM) it increased endogenous levels of active cytokinins, especially of Z, however, it had no effect on CKX activity. Cytokinin N-glucosylation proved to be involved in down-regulation of active cytokinins in response to auxin and in the re-establishment of cytokinin homeostasis following application of exogenous cytokinins.
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