The evolution of deformation microstructures in metals follows a universal pattern of grain subdivision. However, the structure in the grain boundary region may be different from that in the grain interior, although a characteristic region cannot be identified for polycrystals with medium to high stacking fault energy. In the grain interior, the dislocation structure is predominantly composed of almost planar boundaries (geometrically necessary boundaries) and cell boundaries (incidental dislocation boundaries) forming a cell block structure. For grains with grain sizes reaching down to about 4 μm deformed in tension and by rolling, a clear correlation has been established between the characteristics of the deformation structure and the orientation of the grain in which it evolves. A similar correlation is observed for single crystals of different orientations. Such correlations form the basis for a general analysis of active slip systems and for modeling of the flow stress and flow stress anisotropy of polycrystalline samples.
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