The Effect of Insertion Species on Nanostructured Open Framework Hexacyanoferrate Battery Electrodes

  • Wessells C
  • Peddada S
  • McDowell M
 et al. 
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Recentbattery research has focused on the high power and energydensity needed for portable electronics and vehicles, but the requirementsfor grid-scale energy storage are different, with emphasis on lowcost, long cycle life, and safety.1,2 Open framework materials withthe Prussian Blue crystal structure offer the high power capability,ultra-long cycle life, and scalable, low cost synthesis and operationthat are necessary for storage systems to integrate transient energysources, such as wind and solar, with the electrical grid.We have demonstrated that two open framework materials, copper hexacyanoferrateand nickel hexacyanoferrate, can reversibly intercalate lithium, sodium, potassium, andammonium ions at high rates. These materials can achieve capacitiesof up to 60 mAh/g. The porous, nanoparticulate morphology ofthese materials, synthesized by the use of simple and inexpensivemethods, results in remarkable rate capabilities: e.g. copper hexacyanoferrate retains84% of its maximum capacity during potassium cycling at avery high (41.7C) rate, while nickel hexacyanoferrate retains 66% ofits maximum capacity while cycling either sodium or potassium atthis same rate. These materials show excellent stability during thecycling of sodium and potassium, with minimal capacity loss after500 cycles. ©2011 The Electrochemical Society

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  • Colin D. Wessells

  • Sandeep V. Peddada

  • Matthew T. McDowell

  • Robert A. Huggins

  • Yi Cui

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