The expansion of aquaculture and the demand for ornamental fish have resulted in the large-scale movements of aquatic animals and their pathogens. Here we review the most important non-native fish and shellfish pathogens in European waters and their global impacts on wild fish host populations. The role of theoretical models in the study of the impact of microbial pathogens is discussed, including its integration into risk assessments. © 2006 Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
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