The use of superstitious behavior (SB) in sport is a widespread phenomenon and has become increasingly popular at an elite level. SB has been defined as a behavior which does not have a clear technical function in the execution of skill, yet which is believed to control luck and/or other external factors (Moran, 1996). Superstitions have similarities to pre-performance routines (PPRs) in that they involve formal, repetitive, and sequential behavior, but are different in respect of function. Essentially PPRs differ in that they involve cognitive and behavioral elements that intentionally help regulate arousal and enhance concentration (Crews & Boutcher, 1986), and thus induce optimal physiological and psychological states (Cohn, 1990).
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