The Effect of Sulfur to Alkali Ratio on Clinker Properties

  • Plang-ngem S
  • Rattanussorn M
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Abstract

ABSTRACT: The usage of alternative fuel and raw material (AFR) as bio-mass in the cement industry has been increased due to the higher cost of conventional energy. These AFR are composed of many minor elements especially alkali and sulfur. The aim of this study is to better understand the influence of alkali and sulfur in AFR on clinker properties. The laboratory testing was conducted by using potassium carbonate (K2CO3) as a source of alkali and ammonium sulfate as a source of sulfur and using clinker samples from Lampang Cement Plant. All raw mix samples were burnt in electrical furnace at 1450 oC. The laboratory and plant samples were tested by XRD qualitatively and quantitatively with calibration line method, Only Aluminate phase was obtained by salicylic acid in methanol extraction method (SAM) and minor element in aluminate phase was measured by SEM-EDS method. It was found that alkali enriched raw mix led to formation of orthorhombic C3A in spite of cubic polymorph in laboratory clinker which made the reactivity of cement higher. The high SO3 in alkali rich raw mix led to minor compounds formation in laboratory clinker that consisted mainly of arcanite and calcium langbeinite. These minor compounds affected water requirement of cement and workability of concrete. Moreover it was found from testing results of plant clinker that the molar ratio of sulfur to alkali about nearly 1.0 would promote the highest alite content. But formation of arcanite and calcium langbeinite was increased with the increasing sulfur to alkali ratio. 1.

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Authors

  • S. Plang-ngem

  • M. Rattanussorn

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