This article focuses on physical performances after training at a specific time of day. To date, although the effect of time of day on aerobic performances appears to be equivocal, during anaerobic exercises, the effect of time of day has been well established with early morning nadirs and peak performances in the late afternoon. These diurnal rhythms can be influenced by several factors such as the regular training at a specific time of day. Indeed, regular training in the morning hours may increase the lower morning performances to the same or even higher level as their normal diurnal peak typically observed in the late afternoon by a greater increase of performance in the evening. However, regular training in the evening hours may increase the morning-evening (i.e., amplitude of the rhythm) difference by a greater increase of performance in the late afternoon. Therefore, adaptations to training are greater at the time of day at which training is regularly performed than at other times. Nevertheless, although modifications in resting hormones concentrations could explain this time-of-day specific adaptations, precise information on the underlying mechanisms is lacking.
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