The effects of acid leaching on porosity and surface functional groups of cocoa (Theobroma cacao)-shell based activated carbon

  • Ahmad F
  • Daud W
  • Ahmad M
 et al. 
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Cocoa shell pellets were converted into activated carbon (CSAC) by carbonization at 800 degrees C followed by activation at 850 degrees C in CO2 flow until reaching burn off at approximately 48%. The CSAC was treated with hydrochloric acid (HCl) using response surface methodology (RSM), where the effect of soaking times (1, 2 and 4 h), temperatures (30, 50, 70 degrees C) and concentration of HCl (0.1, 1 and 2 M) were studied. CSAC treated with 1 M HCl at higher temperatures (>60 degrees C) yielded CSAC with low ash content (

Author-supplied keywords

  • activated carbon
  • agricultural by-products
  • aqueous-solutions
  • ash
  • biomass oedogonium sp
  • bottom ash
  • cocoa (theobroma cacao) shell
  • de-oiled-soya
  • design parameters
  • fertilizer waste
  • industrial-wastes
  • leaching
  • optimization
  • removal
  • response surface methodology (rsm)
  • rice husk

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  • F Ahmad

  • W M A W Daud

  • M A Ahmad

  • R Radzi

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