Effects of cognition, function, and behavioral and psychological symptoms on out-of-pocket medical and nursing home expenditures and time spent caregiving for persons with dementia

  • Jutkowitz E
  • Kuntz K
  • Dowd B
 et al. 
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Introduction Clinical features of dementia (cognition, function, and behavioral and psychological symptoms) may differentially affect out-of-pocket medical and nursing home (NH) expenditures and informal care received (outcomes). Methods We used cross-sectional data (Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study) to estimate probabilities of experiencing outcomes by clinical features. For those experiencing an outcome, we estimated effects of clinical features on the amount of the outcome. Results No clinical feature predicted the probability of having out-of-pocket medical expenditures. For those with medical expenditures, higher cognition and poorer function were associated with more spending. Poorer function predicted having out-of-pocket NH expenditures. For those with NH expenditures, no clinical feature predicted the amount. Poorer function and a greater number of behavioral and psychological symptoms predicted the probability of receiving caregiving. For those receiving care, poorer function was associated with more caregiving. Conclusions Clinical features differentially impact outcomes with poorer function associated with all types of costs and caregiving received.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Alzheimer's disease costs
  • Caregiving
  • Dementia care
  • Out-of-pocket costs
  • Time caregiving

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