Effects of Different Types of Acute and Chronic (Training) Exercise on Glycaemic Control in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus A Meta-Analysis

  • Tonoli C
  • Heyman E
  • Roelands B
 et al. 
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Abstract

Objective: Exercise has been accepted and generally recommended for the management of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) and for improving the overall quality of life in affected individuals. This meta-analysis was conducted to determine the overall effects of exercise (acute bouts of exercise and chronic exercise [or training]) on acute and chronic glycaemic control in patients with T1D, the effects of different types of exercise on glycaemic control and which conditions are required to obtain these positive effects. Methods: PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and SPORTDiscusÔ were con-sulted to identify studies on T1D and exercise. Cohen's d statistics were used for calculating mean effect sizes (ES) as follows: small d = 0.3, medium d = 0.5 and large d = 0.8. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used to establish the significance of our findings. Results: From a total of 937 studies, 33 that met the inclusion criteria were selected. Nine studies were used to calculate the ES of a single bout of aerobic exercise; 13 studies to calculate the ES of aerobic training; 2 studies to cal-culate the ES of strength training; 4 studies to calculate the ES of combined (aerobic and strength) training and 6 studies to calculate the ES of high-intensity exercise (HIE) and training. ES for exercise on acute glycaemic control were large, while they were small for chronic glycaemic control. Aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, mixed exercise (aerobic combined with resistance training) and HIE acutely decreased blood glucose levels. To pre-vent late-onset hypoglycaemic episodes, the use of single bouts of sprints into an aerobic exercise can be recommended. This meta-analysis also showed that a regular exercise training programme has a significant effect on acute and

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Authors

  • Cajsa Tonoli

  • Elsa Heyman

  • Bart Roelands

  • Luk Buyse

  • Stephen S Cheung

  • Serge Berthoin

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