Skip to content
Journal article

The effects of guided careful online planning on complexity, accuracy and fluency in intermediate EFL learners' oral production: The case of English articles

Ahmadian M ...see all

Language Teaching Research, vol. 16, issue 1 (2012) pp. 129-149

  • 48


    Mendeley users who have this article in their library.
  • Citations

    Citations of this article.
  • Views

    ScienceDirect users who have downloaded this article.
Sign in to save reference


The purpose of the study reported in this article was twofold: First, to see whether guided careful online planning assists intermediate learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) in accurate oral production of English articles (an/a and the); and, second, to see whether guided careful online planning has any effects on global complexity and fluency of intermediate EFL learners’ oral language performance. Forty-five intermediate EFL learners were required to perform an oral narrative task under three planning conditions: guided careful online planning, unguided careful online planning, and pressured online planning (n = 15). Results pointed to the positive effects of guided careful online planning on the accurate production of English articles as well as the global complexity of language in learners’ speech. However, compared to pressured online planners, the global fluency of guided and unguided careful online planners was adversely affected.

Get free article suggestions today

Mendeley saves you time finding and organizing research

Sign up here
Already have an account ?Sign in

Find this document

Get full text


  • M. J. Ahmadian

Cite this document

Choose a citation style from the tabs below