The quantities and spatial distribution of nutrients in savanna ecosystems are affected by many factors, of which fire, herbivory and symbiotic N(2)-fixation are particularly important. We measured soil nitrogen (N) pools and the relative abundance of N and phosphorus (P) in herbaceous vegetation in five vegetation types in a humid savanna in Tanzania. We also performed a factorial fertilization experiment to investigate which nutrients most limit herbaceous production. N pools in the top 10 cm of soil were low at sites where fires were frequent, and higher in areas with woody legume encroachment, or high herbivore excretion. Biomass production was co-limited by N and P at sites that were frequently burnt or heavily grazed by native herbivores. In contrast, aboveground production was limited by N in areas receiving large amounts of excreta from livestock. N(2)-fixation by woody legumes did not lead to P-limitation, but did increase the availability of N relative to P. We conclude that the effects of fire, herbivory and N(2)-fixation upon soil N pools and N:P-stoichiometry in savanna ecosystems are, to a large extent, predictable.
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