SUMMARY: Few studies have evaluated the effects of homocysteine and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genotype on age-related bone loss. In our 5-year cohort study with 1,213 women aged 70-85 years, high homocysteine is associated with greater hip bone loss but not fracture risk. The effect of MTHFR genotype on bone density and fracture is weak.
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies on the effects of homocysteine and MTHFR genotype on bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporotic fracture risk have shown inconsistent results. Few studies have evaluated their effects on age-related bone loss. We evaluated the effects of homocysteine and MTHFR genotype variation on hip BMD and fracture risk over 5 years in a cohort of 1,213 community-dwelling women aged 70-85 years.
METHODS: Nutritional intake and prevalent fracture status were assessed at baseline, plasma homocysteine was measured at year 1, and hip dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) BMD was measured at years 1 and 5. Clinical incident osteoporotic fractures confirmed by radiographic report were collected throughout the study and the MTHFR gene C677T and A1298C polymorphisms genotyped. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance and Cox proportional hazard regression.
RESULTS: The highest tertile of homocysteine was associated with a greater hip BMD loss over 4 years (-2.8%) compared to the middle (-1.6%) and lowest tertiles (-1.2%) (P < 0.001). This effect remained after adjustment for covariates. There was no effect of homocysteine on fracture prevalence or incidence. MTHFR gene variation was only weakly related to one of the bone outcome measures.
CONCLUSION: In this study population, high homocysteine is associated with greater hip bone loss but not fracture risk.
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