Exposure of dogs to inescapable shocks under a variety of conditions reliably interfered with subsequent instrumental escape-avoidance re- sponding in a new situation. Use of a higher level of shock during instru- mental avoidance training did not attenuate interference; this was taken as evidence against an explanation based upon adaptation to shock. Ss curarized during their exposure to inescapable shocks also showed proactive interference with escape-avoidance responding, indicating that interference is not due to acquisition, during the period of exposure to inescapable shocks, of inappropriate, competing instrumental responses. Magnitude of interference was found to dissipate rapidly in time, leaving an apparently normal S after only 48 hr.
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