The use of cocaine and its smoked derivative, crack, is increasing in America. Among those affected are neonates of women who use cocaine during pregnancy. This paper examines the potential effects of maternal cocaine use upon the developing fetus emphasizing neuropsychological and behavioral effects including those that typically persist into early childhood and beyond. Empirical research should continue to explore the effects of maternal cocaine use focusing on whether or not the many detrimental effects of cocaine use during pregnancy are transient, directly teratogenic, or indirect and due to prolonged hypoxia. © 1991.
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