This study investigates the role of organizational learning and process technology in the implementation of mass customization based on 211 samples obtained from 6 provinces and municipalities in China. Results show that team and systems orientation learning can increase process automation and operations performance. Furthermore, learning orientation does not affect process technology and operations performance. Memory orientation can improve throughput directly without the mediating effects of process technology. None of the four orientations of organizational learning affect process flexibility, but this flexibility can increase inventory and operating expenses slightly. On the basis of a theoretical view of mass customization, the current study confirmed that process automation is significantly connected to throughput. However, process flexibility does not contribute to it. As per theory of knowledge-based view, different orientations perform varied functions in the advancement of process technology and operations performance. Learning orientation does not contribute at all. Then this study confirms that the learning of existing knowledge is useful and important in MC implementation. Emerging knowledge does not contribute to process advancement and operations performance significantly; therefore, MC is not an innovative strategy. Rather, this concept is founded on the basis of existing knowledge, as with lean production.
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