The Effects of Parental Reading Socialization and Early School Involvement on Children's Academic Performance: A Panel Study of Primary School Pupils in the Netherlands

  • Hill N
  • Tyson D
  • Gordon M
 et al. 
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Abstract

The idea that parental involvement has a positive influence on students' academic achievement is so intuitively appealing that society in general, and educators in particular, have considered parental involvement as the remedy for many problems in education. The vast proportion of the literature in this area, however, is qualitative without empirical data. Among the empirical studies that have investigated this issue quantitatively, there appear to be considerable inconsistencies. A meta-analysis was conducted to synthesize the quantitative literature about the relationship between parental involvement and students' academic achievement. The findings reveal a moderate, and practically meaningful, relationship between parental involvement and academic achievement. Using moderator analysis, it is revealed that parental aspiration/expectation for children's education achievement as the strongest relationship, while parental home supervision has the weakest relationship, with students' academic achievement. In addition, the relationship is stronger when academic achievement is represented by a global indicator than by a subject-specific indicator. Limitations of the study are noted, and suggestions are made for future studies.

Author-supplied keywords

  • *Academic Achievement
  • *Decision Making
  • *Education
  • *Electronic Communication
  • *High Schools
  • *Latinos/Latinas
  • *Lower Income Level
  • *Mothers
  • *Parental Involvement
  • *Parental Role
  • *Parents
  • *Schools
  • 0340:Educational sociology
  • 0514:School administration
  • 0727:Curriculum development
  • 1999
  • 2010
  • 3315
  • ACADEMIC achievement
  • Academic Achievement
  • Academic Aspiration
  • Academic Performance
  • Academic Standards
  • Academic achievement
  • Academic adjustment
  • Academic competence
  • Academic efficacy
  • Academic guidance counseling
  • Academic organizations
  • Academic performance
  • Academic self-efficacy
  • Academic socialization
  • Accessibility
  • Acculturation
  • Achievement
  • Achievement gap intervention
  • Achievement goal orientations
  • Achievement goals
  • Actigraphy
  • Active school travel
  • Activities
  • Administrator Attitudes
  • Administrator Responsibility
  • Administrators
  • Adolescence
  • Adolescent
  • Adolescent Behavior
  • Adolescent Behavior -- psychology
  • Adolescent Psychology
  • Adolescent achievement
  • Adolescent development
  • Adolescent self-medication
  • Adolescent smoking
  • Adolescent substance use
  • Adolescents
  • Adoption study
  • Affective Behavior
  • Africa
  • African American
  • African American Students
  • African Americans -- psychology
  • Age Factors
  • Alcohol Drinking
  • Alcohol Drinking/*prevention & control
  • Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology
  • Alcohol Drinking/psychology
  • Alcohol Drinking: psychology
  • Alcohol dependence
  • Anxiety
  • Architectures for educational technology system
  • Asian Americans
  • Asian Students
  • Assets
  • Attainment
  • Attendance
  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
  • Attitude Measures
  • Attitudes
  • Attributions
  • Audiorecording
  • Autism
  • Autonomous and controlled motivation
  • Availability
  • Bahamas
  • Barbados
  • Barriers
  • Barriers to parental involvement
  • Behavior Theories
  • Behavioral Science Research
  • Belief-behavior links
  • Beliefs
  • Benefits
  • Bike
  • Blacks
  • Blog use
  • Bourdieu
  • Britain
  • Bully-victim
  • Bullying
  • Bullying and victimization at school
  • Bullying: psychology
  • CHI-square test
  • CHICAGO (Ill.)
  • CHILD care
  • CHILD development
  • CHILD psychotherapy -- Parent participation
  • CORRELATION (Statistics)
  • Cambodia
  • Cannabis dependence
  • Career goals
  • Caring
  • Case Studies
  • Chicago longitudinal study
  • Child
  • Child Behavior -- psychology
  • Child Development
  • Child Psychology
  • Child adjustment
  • Child anxiety
  • Child development
  • Child psychology
  • Child-Parent
  • Childhood anxiety
  • Childhood obesity
  • Children
  • Children and Families/Child and Family Welfare
  • Children's educational performance
  • Children's mental well-being
  • China
  • Chinese American
  • Christian schools international schools
  • Christians
  • Chronic pain
  • Civic engagement
  • Classroom climate
  • Clubs
  • Coding
  • Cognitions
  • Cognitive abilities
  • Cognitive ability
  • Cognitive behavioural therapy
  • Cognitive outcomes
  • Cohort Studies
  • College students
  • Communication
  • Community involvement
  • Community poverty
  • Comparative education
  • Computer-mediated communication
  • Conceptual Framework
  • Confirmatory factor analysis
  • Coparenting
  • Correlation
  • Counselor Attitudes
  • Counselor Role
  • Courses
  • Crime Victims
  • Crime Victims: psychology
  • Crime Victims: statistics & numerical data
  • Cripps
  • Cross-Cultural Comparison
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Cultural Differences
  • Cultural Pluralism
  • Culture
  • Current Index to Journals in Education (CIJE
  • Curriculum development
  • Cyber bullying
  • Cyprus
  • DATA analysis -- Software
  • ECLS-K
  • EDUCATION
  • ELEMENTARY schools
  • ELL
  • ERIC
  • Early childhood education
  • Ecological factors
  • Ecological system theory
  • Economies of scale
  • Education
  • Education Parent participation
  • Education policy
  • Education reform
  • Educational
  • Educational Change
  • Educational Environment
  • Educational Practices
  • Educational aspirations
  • Educational attainment
  • Educational economics
  • Educational intervention
  • Educational sociology
  • Effort
  • Elementary
  • Elementary Education
  • Elementary Schools
  • Elementary Secondary Education
  • Elementary children
  • Elementary school
  • Elementary school success
  • Elementary schools
  • Emerging adulthood
  • Emotional intelligence
  • Engagement
  • Ethnic inequality
  • Ethnicity
  • European American
  • European Continental Ancestry Group -- psychology
  • Evidence-based interventions
  • Exclusion
  • Expectation
  • Expectations
  • Exploratory Research
  • Exposure
  • Extracurricular activities
  • Factors
  • Factors affecting parental involvement
  • Family
  • Family Environment
  • Family Influence
  • Family Involvement
  • Family Structure
  • Family characteristic
  • Family engagement
  • Family factors
  • Family foster care
  • Family functioning
  • Family involvement
  • Family process model
  • Family relations
  • Family resources
  • Family structure
  • Family-school partnerships
  • Father involvement
  • Fathers
  • Federal Legislation
  • Female
  • Field Notes
  • Financial disadvantage
  • Financial strain
  • Focus Groups
  • Food involvement
  • Foreign Countries
  • Friendship
  • Fruit
  • Fruit and vegetable intake
  • Functional disability
  • Funding Source
  • Gender
  • Gender Differences
  • Gender differences
  • Gender studies
  • General cognitive ability
  • Genetic and environmental influences
  • Ghana
  • Grade
  • Grades 1-3
  • Guidance
  • Guides
  • HISPANIC Americans
  • HLM
  • HOMEWORK
  • Habit
  • Health Belief Model
  • Health promotion
  • High School Education
  • High academic achievement
  • High school
  • High-risk youth
  • Hispanic
  • Hispanics
  • Historical analysis
  • Home and school
  • Home environment
  • Home-based involvement
  • Home-school cooperation
  • Home-school relationships
  • Homework
  • Hong Kong
  • Human
  • Human Childhood (birth-12 yrs) Adulthood (18 yrs &
  • Humans
  • ILLINOIS
  • IMMIGRANTS
  • Iintersectionality
  • Immigrants
  • Immigration
  • Improving academic achievement
  • In-service teacher education
  • Inattention
  • Independent sample
  • Influence
  • Initiation of sexual intercourse
  • Intention
  • Interactive learning environments
  • Interviews
  • Intrinsic motivation
  • Involvement
  • Involvement in education research
  • Jamaica
  • Jews
  • Junior high
  • Kentucky
  • Kindergarten
  • LONGITUDINAL method
  • LOW-income parents
  • Latino
  • Latino children
  • Latino education
  • Latino families
  • Latino immigrant parents
  • Latino youth
  • Latinos
  • Latinos parental school involvement
  • Latinos/Latinas
  • Learning time
  • Legal Responsibility
  • Life satisfaction
  • Likert Scales
  • Linear Models
  • Linguistics
  • Longitudinal
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Longitudinal research
  • Longitudinal studies
  • Longitudinal study
  • Low Income Groups
  • MATHEMATICS
  • MEDICAL centers
  • MIDDLE school students
  • MOTIVATIONAL interviewing
  • Major family life events
  • Male
  • Marital Status
  • Maryland
  • Maternal substance abuse
  • Mathematics
  • Mathematics achievement
  • Measures (Individuals)
  • Mediation
  • Meta-analysis
  • Mexican American youths
  • Middle School Students
  • Middle Schools
  • Middle school
  • Middle school students
  • Minority
  • Minority parental involvement
  • Minority parental involvement program
  • Minority parents' participation in school
  • Missouri
  • Mixed methods
  • Model of involvement
  • Mother involvement
  • Mother-child relations
  • Mothers
  • Motivation
  • Multilevel models
  • Multiple mediator model
  • NELS:88
  • Native American adolescents
  • Naturalistic Observation
  • Negative affect
  • Neighborhood safety
  • Neighborhood structure
  • Neighborhoods
  • Nepal
  • Netherlands
  • No Child Left Behind Act 2001
  • No Child Left Behind Act 2001-US
  • Norms
  • Northern
  • Norwegian sample
  • Nutrition
  • Obesity
  • Odds ratio
  • PARENTING
  • POVERTY
  • PRESCHOOL children
  • PSID-CDS
  • Parent
  • Parent Attitudes
  • Parent Child Relationship
  • Parent Education
  • Parent Influence
  • Parent Participation
  • Parent Role
  • Parent School Relationship
  • Parent Teacher Cooperation
  • Parent expectations
  • Parent goals
  • Parent involvement
  • Parent involvement in education
  • Parent involvement in homework
  • Parent participation
  • Parent pressure
  • Parent support
  • Parent-Child Relations
  • Parent-adolescent communication
  • Parent-adolescent discordance
  • Parent-child relations
  • Parent-school relationship
  • Parent/family engagement in education
  • Parent/family involvement in education
  • Parental Attitudes
  • Parental Investment
  • Parental Involvem
  • Parental Involvement
  • Parental Invovlement
  • Parental Role
  • Parental academic involvement at home
  • Parental academic involvement in high school
  • Parental alcoholism
  • Parental attitudes
  • Parental career-related involvement
  • Parental competence
  • Parental consumption
  • Parental control
  • Parental depression
  • Parental education
  • Parental educational involvement
  • Parental expectations
  • Parental factors
  • Parental influences
  • Parental involvement
  • Parental involvement and academic achievement
  • Parental involvement in schools
  • Parental knowledge
  • Parental monitoring
  • Parental obesity
  • Parental pressure
  • Parental self-efficacy
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Parental smoking attitude
  • Parental smoking behaviour
  • Parental solicitation
  • Parental style
  • Parental support
  • Parental views
  • Parenting
  • Parenting -- psychology
  • Parenting Styles
  • Parenting intervention
  • Parenting stress
  • Parenting/*psychology
  • Parents
  • Parents & parenting
  • Parents -- Evaluation
  • Parents -- Psychosocial Factors
  • Parents' education
  • Parents' roles
  • Participation
  • Participative Decision Making
  • Partnerships
  • Partnerships in education research
  • Pedagogical issues
  • Pedestrian
  • Pediatric pain
  • Peer
  • Peer Group
  • Peer influence
  • Peer victimization
  • Peers
  • Perceived parental control
  • Perceived parental support
  • Performance
  • Performance arts
  • Personal Autonomy
  • Personal goal appraisals
  • Physical Fitness And Hygiene
  • Physical activity
  • Physical education
  • Physically active leisure
  • Pillais Trace
  • Polysubstance use
  • Portfolios (Background Materials)
  • Positive affect
  • Possible selves
  • Poverty
  • Pre-kindergarten
  • Pre-school children
  • Pre-schoolers
  • Preschool
  • Preschool education
  • Preschool teachers
  • Prevention
  • Principals
  • Professionalism
  • Program Effectiveness
  • Program for International Student Assessment
  • Project Head Start
  • Psychological aspects
  • Psychosocial factors
  • Psychosocial functioning
  • Public Relations
  • Public Schools
  • Puerto Rican males
  • Puerto Rican students
  • Pupil achievement
  • Pupils
  • Purposive Sample
  • Qualitative Research
  • Qualitative research
  • Questionnaires
  • Race
  • Race Factors
  • Race/ethnicity
  • Racial Differences
  • Racial socialization
  • Racism awareness
  • Readiness for school
  • Reform in mathematics education
  • Regression (Statistics)
  • Relational bullying
  • Religiosity
  • Republic of Korea
  • Resilience (Psychology)
  • Review
  • Risk Factors
  • Risk behaviors
  • Role
  • Role construction
  • SEM
  • SES
  • SOCIOECONOMIC factors
  • STRUCTURAL equation modeling
  • STUDENT assignments
  • SURVEYS
  • Safe routes to school
  • Safety
  • School
  • School Community Relationship
  • School Counse
  • School Districts
  • School Environment
  • School Personnel
  • School Policy
  • School Refusal
  • School Support
  • School administration
  • School and home connections
  • School barriers
  • School belonging
  • School bullying
  • School characteristic
  • School children
  • School choice
  • School climate
  • School connectedness
  • School counseling
  • School disengagement
  • School education
  • School engagement
  • School enjoyment
  • School factors
  • School functioning
  • School governance
  • School grades
  • School involvement
  • School leadership on minority parental involvement
  • School psychologists
  • School success
  • School-based interventions
  • School-based involvement
  • School-parent communication
  • School-related parental involvement
  • Schools
  • Schools DI - 10.1080/13632752.2013.816199
  • Secondary Education
  • Secondary school students
  • Secondary schools
  • Self Efficacy
  • Self-Efficacy
  • Self-efficacy
  • Selfconcept
  • Sensation seeking
  • Sex Distribution
  • Sex Factors
  • Shadow education
  • Site-level
  • Sleep
  • Smoking
  • Social Adjustment
  • Social Cognition
  • Social Environment*
  • Social Processes & Social Issues [2900]
  • Social and cultural issues
  • Social capital
  • Social competence
  • Social context
  • Social control theory
  • Social dynamics
  • Social networks
  • Social support
  • Socialization
  • Socio-economic background
  • Sociodemographic characteristics
  • Socioeconomic
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Socioeconomic Status
  • Socioeconomic background
  • Socioeconomic status
  • South africa
  • South-East Europe
  • Special education
  • Speech and language therapy
  • Sport
  • Sports
  • Stochastic Actor-Based models
  • Stress
  • Structural Equation
  • Structural equation modeling
  • Structured Interview
  • Student Diversity
  • Student Motivation
  • Student achievement
  • Student characteristic
  • Student homework behavior
  • Students
  • Students -- psychology
  • Students/*psychology
  • Students/statistics & numerical data
  • Students: statistics & numerical data
  • Studies
  • Substance Abuse -- Prevention and Control -- In In
  • Substance use disorder
  • Supports
  • Targeted interventions
  • Teacher Attitudes
  • Teacher Education
  • Teacher beliefs
  • Teacher efficacy
  • Teacher expectations
  • Teacher perception on minority parent
  • Teacher perceptions
  • Teacher professionalism
  • Teacher responsiveness
  • Teachers
  • Teachers -- Evaluation
  • Technology
  • Title I student achievement
  • Transition
  • Treatment
  • Twin study CoSMoS
  • Types of parental involvement
  • UNITED States
  • Union transitions
  • Urban
  • Urban education
  • Urban schools
  • Urban teachers
  • Variables
  • Vegetables
  • Vocational and general (lycee) high schools
  • Volunteers
  • Walk
  • Walking school bus
  • Well-being
  • Whites
  • Workshops
  • Youth
  • Youth disclosure
  • Zyromski
  • academic achievement
  • academic performance
  • academic success
  • achieve-
  • achievement
  • achievement goal theory has
  • achievement goals
  • achievement patterns among
  • across cultures and ethnicities
  • adolescence
  • adolescents
  • age-related differences
  • an awesome joy and
  • and community research
  • and high school students
  • anxiety
  • approaches to
  • associated
  • assume in the family
  • barriers to student achievement
  • been believed to be
  • beginning of
  • behavioural problems
  • between different types of
  • bullying
  • c
  • case study
  • challenges
  • chicago longitudinal study
  • child development
  • child socialization been examined
  • children &amp
  • children's educational progress.
  • chinese families
  • classroom management
  • closing achievement gap
  • collaboration
  • collaboration has
  • conferences
  • conjoint behavioral consultation
  • conservative Christian schools
  • context
  • cultural differences
  • d
  • decades
  • decision-making
  • delinquency
  • delinquent peers
  • depression
  • development r&amp
  • developmentally appropriate
  • diversity
  • dr
  • e
  • early education
  • education
  • educational aspirations
  • educational consultation
  • educational equity
  • educational partnership
  • educational policy
  • educational programs
  • educational trajectories and transitions
  • effects of parental involvement
  • elementary
  • elementary children
  • elementary school
  • elementary school success
  • elementary students
  • elementary-aged populations and primarily
  • emotional competence
  • enhanced school outcomes for
  • ethnic groups
  • ethnocentrism
  • ethnography
  • explaining academic motivation and
  • fam-
  • familialization
  • families
  • families &amp
  • families and schools
  • families and schools have
  • family
  • family life
  • family process model
  • family-
  • far
  • fendrich
  • focus on the
  • for more than two
  • formalized schooling
  • frame factor theory
  • future plans
  • g
  • gangs
  • ghana
  • governance
  • high school completion
  • home-school collaboration
  • home-school relations
  • homework
  • home–school relations
  • hong kong
  • households
  • however
  • illiterate parents
  • ily-school partnerships
  • immigrant
  • immigration
  • in order to understand
  • including varied indicators of
  • individualization
  • institutionalization
  • interdisciplinary teams
  • internalizing problems
  • introduced the accelerated development
  • involvement
  • involvement in school
  • is all-encompassing to include
  • izzo
  • junior high school
  • kasprow
  • kratochwill
  • kwame nkrumah
  • literacy
  • local school board
  • longitudinal research
  • low-achieving
  • low-income
  • lowincome family
  • marijuana
  • maternal employment
  • mathematics achievement
  • measurement
  • mechanisms of parental influence
  • meta analysis
  • meta-analysis
  • micro-politics
  • middle
  • middle school
  • motivation
  • motivation for involvement
  • multipe case study
  • navajo indian families
  • of
  • on academic achievement
  • only recently have studies
  • out as one of
  • over the course of
  • parent
  • parent and teacher perceptions
  • parent involvement
  • parent relationship
  • parent school rela
  • parent-school partnerships
  • parental
  • parental beliefs
  • parental control
  • parental engagement
  • parental involvement
  • parental involvement and high
  • parental involvement has long
  • parental involvement.
  • parental management
  • parental participation
  • parental perspectives
  • parental role
  • parental support
  • parental values
  • parenting
  • parenting a child is
  • parenting style
  • parents
  • parents &amp
  • parents decision
  • parents involvement
  • partnership
  • peer networks
  • peer pressure
  • perception
  • poverty
  • predictability
  • predictors
  • primary school
  • principal
  • race
  • reform
  • relationship
  • research
  • research &amp
  • researchers have documented the
  • resources
  • responsibility
  • roles
  • roles mothers and fathers
  • s attitudes
  • satisfaction
  • scale development
  • school achievement
  • school adjustment
  • school comple-
  • school education
  • school environment
  • school factors
  • school leadership
  • school matters
  • school motivation
  • school outreach efforts
  • school partnerships
  • school readiness
  • school refusal
  • school structure
  • school success
  • school transition
  • school-age children
  • school-community relations
  • school-family relationship
  • school-related factors
  • schools
  • self-efficacy
  • sheridan
  • social
  • social competence
  • social context
  • social justice
  • social problems
  • social sciences
  • social support
  • socioeconomic status
  • special education settings
  • standard deviation
  • stood
  • strategies
  • strengths
  • structural equation model
  • student achievement
  • student attendance
  • student characteristics
  • student learning growth
  • support
  • survey research
  • teacher
  • teacher perspectives
  • teacher report
  • teachers
  • teaming
  • the diversity of the
  • the first president of
  • the most significant sociocognitive
  • the nature of the
  • the role
  • the role of parent
  • truancy
  • urban
  • utilitarianism
  • weissberg
  • welcoming
  • with a range of
  • worked together since the
  • youth

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Authors

  • Nancy E. Hill

  • Diana F. Tyson

  • Mellissa Gordon

  • Ming Cui

  • Stelios N. Georgiou

  • Anna Tourva

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