The idea that parental involvement has a positive influence on students' academic achievement is so intuitively appealing that society in general, and educators in particular, have considered parental involvement as the remedy for many problems in education. The vast proportion of the literature in this area, however, is qualitative without empirical data. Among the empirical studies that have investigated this issue quantitatively, there appear to be considerable inconsistencies. A meta-analysis was conducted to synthesize the quantitative literature about the relationship between parental involvement and students' academic achievement. The findings reveal a moderate, and practically meaningful, relationship between parental involvement and academic achievement. Using moderator analysis, it is revealed that parental aspiration/expectation for children's education achievement as the strongest relationship, while parental home supervision has the weakest relationship, with students' academic achievement. In addition, the relationship is stronger when academic achievement is represented by a global indicator than by a subject-specific indicator. Limitations of the study are noted, and suggestions are made for future studies.
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