We investigated instruction of independent creation of picture activity schedules (PASs) and how four middle school students with intellectual disability used them to complete tasks independently. A withdrawal design (A-BC-B-A-B) was used to evaluate whether the intervention had an effect on the dependent variable and to test for generalization to a community setting in a pre/post format. After instruction on the PAS, participants learned to self-manage a strategy that served as a reminder for the tasks they needed to complete. All participants exhibited increased abilities to complete a sequence of three or five tasks following verbal directions when using the PAS as compared with the conditions where no PAS was utilized. In addition, these results generalized to the community setting of a mall food court. Our findings have implications for enhancing the independent functioning of individuals with intellectual disability and reducing reliance on others, with the potential for greater levels of self-determination.
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