Efficacy of Plant-Derived and Synthetic Compounds on Clothing as Repellents Against Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae)

  • Jordan R
  • Schulze T
  • Dolan M
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Abstract

We conducted field trials to compare the relative repellent activity of two natural product compounds (nootkatone and carvacrol) with commercially available plant-derived (EcoSMART organic insect repellent) and permethrin-based (Repel Permanone) repellents against adult Ixodes scapularis Say and Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) by using treated coveralls. One day after treatment, nootkatone and carvacrol provided 100% repellency of I. scapularis adults, with nootkatone maintaining complete protection through 3 d, whereas carvacrol showed steadily declining repellency against I. scapularis during the 7-d course of the trials. Nootkatone was at least as effective against host-seeking A. americanum as against I. scapularis through 3 d. Carvacrol provided little protection against A. americanum adults. Both natural compounds performed well initially in comparison with the commercial products. After 7 d, nootkatone was the most effective against both species followed in order of activity by Permanone, EcoSMART, and carvacrol. Nootkatone seems to have offer considerable potential as a clothing repellent against both I. scapularis and A. americanum.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Animals
  • Clothing
  • Insect Repellents
  • Insect Repellents: chemistry
  • Insect Repellents: pharmacology
  • Ixodidae
  • Ixodidae: drug effects
  • Monoterpenes
  • Monoterpenes: chemistry
  • Monoterpenes: pharmacology
  • Permethrin
  • Permethrin: chemistry
  • Permethrin: pharmacology
  • Plants
  • Plants: chemistry
  • Sesquiterpenes
  • Sesquiterpenes: chemistry
  • Sesquiterpenes: pharmacology
  • Tick Control

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Authors

  • Robert A. Jordan

  • Terry L. Schulze

  • Marc C. Dolan

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