This paper investigates the impact of combining CO2 capture and storage with alternative systems for biomass-based combined heat and power production (CHP) in Kraft pulp and paper mills. We compare heat, power, and CO2 balances of systems with alternative configurations of the CHP and CO2-capture systems. Because the captured CO2 comes from renewable biomass, the studied systems yield negative CO2 emissions. It is shown that pulp mills and integrated pulp and paper mills have the potential to become net exporters of biomass-based electricity while at the same time removing CO2 from the atmosphere on a net basis. The study shows that that the overall best CO2 abatement is achieved when CO2 capture is carried out within a biomass integrated gasifier with combined cycle where the syngas undergoes a CO-shift reaction. This configuration combines efficient energy conversion with a high CO2 capture efficiency. Furthermore, cost curves are constructed, which show how the cost of CO2 capture and storage in pulp and paper mills depends on system configuration and the CO2 transportation distance. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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