Journal article

Electrodeposition of copper: The nucleation mechanisms

Grujicic D, Pesic B ...see all

Electrochimica Acta, vol. 47, issue 18 (2002) pp. 2901-2912

  • 290

    Readers

    Mendeley users who have this article in their library.
  • Citations

    Citations of this article.
  • Views

    ScienceDirect users who have downloaded this article.
Sign in to save reference

Abstract

The nucleation mechanisms of copper during electrodeposition of thin films from sulfate solutions were studied by utilizing the electrochemical techniques (cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Near atomically smooth glassy carbon was used as the deposition substrate (electrode). The copper nucleation mechanisms were examined as a function of solution pH, copper concentration, deposition potential, temperature, and background electrolyte. It was found that with pH and copper concentration increase, the nuclei size increased, while the nuclei population density decreased. An increase of deposition potential produced smaller nuclei and higher nuclei population density. Temperature affected the morphology of deposited copper. The presence of background electrolyte also influenced the morphology and population density of copper nuclei. The nucleation mechanisms were examined by fitting the experimental data (chronoamperometry) into the Scharifker-Hills nucleation models. It was found that at pH 1, in the absence of background electrolyte, copper nucleation was instantaneous. At pH 2 and 3, the mechanism was inconclusive. In the presence of background electrolyte, the mechanism at pH 1 and 2 was mixed, while at pH 3, the mechanism was progressive nucleation. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Atomic force microscopy
  • Copper electrochemistry
  • Copper nucleation
  • Cottrell equation
  • Nucleation models

Get free article suggestions today

Mendeley saves you time finding and organizing research

Sign up here
Already have an account ?Sign in

Find this document

Get full text

Authors

  • Darko Grujicic

  • Batric Pesic

Cite this document

Choose a citation style from the tabs below

Save time finding and organizing research with Mendeley

Sign up for free