The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of instability training in the recruitment of core stabilizing muscles during dynamic multijoint movement. Surface electromyography (EMG) was measured from 6 muscles (latissimus dorsi, rectus abdominus, internal obliques, erector spinae, and soleus) while subjects performed a 9.1-kg bench press on stable and unstable surfaces. There were 4 exercises in total: (a) stable surfaces for shoulders and feet, (b) upper-body instability, (c) lower-body instability, and (d) dual instability. Five seconds of EMG were recorded during each bench press and were subsequently smoothed with root mean squares calculated for the entire time-series. A repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test overall differences between exercise conditions for each muscle. Paired equal variance t-tests with a stepwise Bonferroni correction for multiple contrasts (alpha = 0.05/total number of contrasts) were performed for muscles with significant repeated-measures ANOVA results. The results show significant increases in EMG with increasing instability. Specifically, the dual instability bench press resulted in the greatest mean muscle activation of the 3 stability conditions, with single instability conditions being significantly greater than the stable condition. This pattern of results is consistent with the position that performing the bench press in a progressively unstable environment may be an effective method to increase activation of the core stabilizing musculature, while the upper- and lower-body stabilizers can be activated differentially depending on the mode of instability.
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