We have characterized the head involution defective (hid) locus which is located within the chromosomal region 75B8-C1,2. During the morphogenetic reorganization of the embryonic head region, hid+ function is necessary for the movement of the dorsal fold across the procephalon and clypeolabrum, a process that forms the frontal sac. The absence of the frontal sac in the hid mutant embryos affects the formation of the dorsal bridge and disrupts the development of the larval cephalopharyngeal skeleton. In addition to its embryonic role, this same hid function is also required during pupal development for the 360 degrees rotation of the male terminalia about the anterior-posterior body axis, and for a late step of wing blade morphogenesis. Although the abnormal wing phenotype caused by the Wrinkled (W) mutation is quite different from the one resulting from the loss-of-function hid mutations, the characterization of EMS-induced W revertants reveals that W is actually an antimorphic allele of hid.
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