Vaccination, when available, is undoubtedly the most cost-effective means of preventing and controlling, and even eradicating, infectious diseases. In recent years vaccination has also been used for other purposes in animal health, production and welfare, e.g. immunocastration. Vaccination of animals serves many different purposes, such as controlling animal infections and infestations, thus improving animal health and welfare; controlling anthropozoonoses and food poisoning in humans, thereby protecting public health; solving problems associated with antibiotic and anthelmintic resistance; helping to leave food-producing animals free of chemical residues; protecting the environment and biodiversity and ensuring animal farming sustainability. The problem is nevertheless more complex when facing emerging or re-emerging infections particularly zoonotic ones. © 2009.
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