Recent studies have suggested a potentially important role for a family of tiny regulatory RNAs, known as microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs), in the control of diverse aspects of cardiac function in health and disease. Although the field of miRNA biology is relatively new, there is emerging evidence that miRNAs may play an important role in the pathogenesis of heart failure through their ability to regulate the expression levels of genes that govern the process of adaptive and maladaptive cardiac remodeling. Here, we review the biology of miRNAs in relation to their role in modulating various aspects of the process of cardiac remodeling, as well as discuss the potential application of miRNA biology to the field of heart failure.
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