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Emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases over Asian regions during 2000-2008: Regional Emission inventory in ASia (REAS) version 2

Kurokawa J, Ohara T, Morikawa T, Hanayama S, Janssens-Maenhout G, Fukui T, Kawashima K, Akimoto H ...see all

Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 13, issue 21 (2013) pp. 11019-11058

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Abstract

We have updated the Regional Emission inven-tory in ASia (REAS) as version 2.1. REAS 2.1 includes most major air pollutants and greenhouse gases from each year during 2000 and 2008 and following areas of Asia: East, Southeast, South, and Central Asia and the Asian part of Russia. Emissions are estimated for each country and region using updated activity data and parameters. Monthly grid-ded data with a 0.25 • × 0.25 • resolution are also provided. Asian emissions for each species in 2008 are as follows (with their growth rate from 2000 to 2008): 56.9 Tg (+34 %) for SO 2 , 53.9 Tg (+54 %) for NO x , 359.5 Tg (+34 %) for CO, 68.5 Tg (+46 %) for non-methane volatile organic com-pounds, 32.8 Tg (+17 %) for NH 3 , 36.4 Tg (+45 %) for PM 10 , 24.7 Tg (+42 %) for PM 2.5 , 3.03 Tg (+35 %) for black car-bon, 7.72 Tg (+21 %) for organic carbon, 182.2 Tg (+32 %) for CH 4 , 5.80 Tg (+18 %) for N 2 O, and 16.0 Pg (+57 %) for CO 2 . By country, China and India were respectively the largest and second largest contributors to Asian emis-sions. Both countries also had higher growth rates in emis-sions than others because of their continuous increases in energy consumption, industrial activities, and infrastructure development. In China, emission mitigation measures have been implemented gradually. Emissions of SO 2 in China in-creased from 2000 to 2006 and then began to decrease as flue-gas desulphurization was installed to large power plants. On the other hand, emissions of air pollutants in total East Asia except for China decreased from 2000 to 2008 owing to lower economic growth rates and more effective emission regulations in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. Emissions from other regions generally increased from 2000 to 2008, although their relative shares of total Asian emissions are smaller than those of China and India. Tables of annual emis-sions by country and region broken down by sub-sector and fuel type, and monthly gridded emission data with a resolu-tion of 0.25 • × 0.25 • for the major sectors are available from the following URL: http://www.nies.go.jp/REAS/.

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Authors

  • J. Kurokawa

  • T. Ohara

  • T. Morikawa

  • S. Hanayama

  • G. Janssens-Maenhout

  • T. Fukui

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