Endothelial dysfunction in hypertension: The role of arginase

  • D.L. M
  • K.L. A
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Abstract

Essential hypertension is the leading risk factor for mortality worldwide, accountable for 13% of deaths globally. Despite numerous therapies available uncontrolled hypertension is still very prevalent today and a large subset are shown to have treatment resistant hypertension. Several cardiovascular diseases including hypertension result in endothelial dysfunction and inflammation. Once thought of as a passive barrier between blood flow and tissue the endothelium is now considered a main hub for maintaining vascular tone, structure and haemostasis. Several pathways occur in the endothelium that can result in dysfunction and altered vascular stasis. Such pathways include the impairment of the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO), increases in pro-inflammatory pathways such as ROS (reactive oxygen species) production and also recent reports suggest that the enzyme arginase, associated with the L-arginine-urea cycle, may be an important factor that is increased in hypertension. These pathways may offer alternative mechanisms to treat the complications associated with hypertension rather than the conventional therapies that aim to lower blood pressure.

Author-supplied keywords

  • *arginase/ec [Endogenous Compound]
  • *endothelial dysfunction
  • *hypertension/ep [Epidemiology]
  • PADGEM protein/ec [Endogenous Compound]
  • age
  • antihypertensive therapy
  • arginine
  • arterial stiffness
  • artery intima proliferation
  • atenolol/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • blood flow
  • blood pressure measurement
  • cardiovascular mortality
  • cellular distribution
  • cyclic GMP/ec [Endogenous Compound]
  • diastolic blood pressure
  • elevated blood pressure/ep [Epidemiology]
  • endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule 1/ec [Endo
  • endothelial nitric oxide synthase/ec [Endogenous C
  • endothelin 1/ec [Endogenous Compound]
  • endothelium cell
  • essential hypertension
  • heart left ventricle hypertrophy
  • human
  • immunoglobulin enhancer binding protein/ec [Endoge
  • inducible nitric oxide synthase/ec [Endogenous Com
  • inflammation
  • intercellular adhesion molecule 1/ec [Endogenous C
  • losartan/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • n(g)
  • n(g) dimethylarginine/ec [Endogenous Compound
  • neuronal nitric oxide synthase/ec [Endogenous Comp
  • nonhuman
  • obesity
  • phosphorylation and dephosphorylation
  • prevalence
  • reactive oxygen metabolite/ec [Endogenous Compound
  • resistant hypertension/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • resistant hypertension/ep [Epidemiology]
  • review
  • risk factor
  • shear stress
  • single nucleotide polymorphism
  • systolic blood pressure
  • trandolapril plus verapamil/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • vascular cell adhesion molecule 1/ec [Endogenous C
  • vascular resistance
  • vasoconstriction
  • vasodilatation

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Authors

  • Michell D.L.

  • Andrews K.L.

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