An energy- and depth-dependent model for x-ray imaging

  • Gallas B
  • Boswell J
  • Badano A
 et al. 
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Abstract

In this paper, we model an x-ray imaging system, paying special attention to the energy- and depth-dependent characteristics of the inputs and interactions: x rays are polychromatic, interaction depth and conversion to optical photons is energy-dependent, optical scattering and the collection efficiency depend on the depth of interaction. The model we construct is a random function of the point process that begins with the distribution of x rays incident on the phosphor and ends with optical photons being detected by the active area of detector pixels to form an image. We show how the point-process representation can be used to calculate the characteristic statistics of the model. We then simulate a Gd2O2S:Tb phosphor, estimate its characteristic statistics, and proceed with a signal-detection experiment to investigate the impact of the pixel fill factor on detecting spherical calcifications (the signal). The two extremes possible from this experiment are that SNR2 does not change with fill factor or changes in proportion to fill factor. In our results, the impact of fill factor is between these extremes, and depends on the diameter of the signal.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Digital detectors
  • Image quality
  • Model observers
  • Optical transport
  • Phosphors
  • Pixel fill factor
  • Point processes
  • Signal detection
  • X-ray interactions
  • X-ray spectra

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Authors

  • Brandon D. Gallas

  • Jonathan S. Boswell

  • Aldo Badano

  • Robert M. Gagne

  • Kyle J. Myers

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