Energy level alignment of electrically doped hole transport layers with transparent and conductive indium tin oxide and polymer anodes

  • Fehse K
  • Olthof S
  • Walzer K
 et al. 
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Abstract

Using ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, we investigated the
energy level alignment at the interfaces of typical anodes used in
organic electronics, indium tin oxide (ITO) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)
(PEDOT:PSS), with the oligomeric hole transport material N,N,N-',N-'-tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)-benzidine
(MeO-TPD), and studied the influence of electrical interface doping
by the strong electron acceptor tetrafluoro tetracyanoquinodimethane
(F-4-TCNQ). The fundamentally different anode materials with work
functions of 4.40 eV (ITO) and 4.85 eV (PEDOT:PSS) show different
hole injection barriers, which also depend on the thickness of the
F-4-TCNQ interface dopant layer. PEDOT:PSS anodes exhibit a consistently
lower hole injection barrier to MeO-TPD compared to ITO by 0.1 eV.
We attribute this low hole injection barrier to additional charge
transfer reactions at the PEDOT:PSS/MeO-TPD interface. In contrast,
the deposition of the electron acceptor at the interface helps significantly
to lower the hole injection barrier for ITO anodes. (C) 2007 American
Institute of Physics.

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Authors

  • Selina OlthofUniversitat zu Koln

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  • Karsten Fehse

  • Karsten Walzer

  • Karl Leo

  • Robert L. Johnson

  • Hendrik Glowatzki

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