Enterobacter cloacae outbreak and emergence of quinolone resistance gene in Dutch Hospital

  • Paauw A
  • Fluit A
  • Verhoef J
 et al. 
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An outbreak of Enterobacter cloacae infections with variable susceptibility to fluoroquinolones occurred in the University Medical Center Utrecht in the Netherlands in 2002. Our investigation showed that a qnrA1 gene was present in 78 (94%) of 83 outbreak isolates and that a qnrA1-encoding plasmid transferred to other strains of the same species and other species. The earliest isolate carrying this same plasmid was isolated in 1999. qnrA1 was located in a complex integron consisting of the intI1, aadB, qacEDelta1, sul1, orf513, qnrA1, ampR, qacEDelta1, and sul1 genes that were not described previously. On the same plasmid, 2 other class 1 integrons were present. One was a new integron associated with the bla(CTX-M-9) extended-spectrum beta-lactamase.

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  • Armand Paauw

  • Ad C. Fluit

  • Jan Verhoef

  • Maurine A. Leverstein-Van Hall

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