Epidural and spinal anaesthesia in the dog

  • L. C
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Abstract

Epidural and spinal anaesthesia was first reported in veterinary patients in the 1920s. It is usually carried out in animals as a preoperative measure to limit intraoperative nociception, abolish skeletal muscle tone and reduce anaesthetic requirements; this, in turn, facilitates a smoother recovery and a more rapid return to normal behaviour. The effects of epidural and spinal anaesthetics are more localised and more intense than systemically administered drugs. This article discusses how epidural and spinal anaesthesia is achieved in terms of its physiological effects and reviews the agents commonly used. It goes on to describe the techniques for epidural injection and catheter placement.

Author-supplied keywords

  • alpha 2 adrenergic receptor
  • alpha 2 adrenergic receptor stimulating agent
  • anesthesia induction
  • anesthesia mechanism
  • anesthesiological procedure
  • anesthetic recovery
  • atropine
  • benzodiazepine derivative
  • bradycardia
  • bretylium
  • bupivacaine
  • buprenorphine
  • cardiotoxicity
  • cholinergic receptor blocking agent
  • diazepam
  • dobutamine
  • dog disease
  • drug contraindication
  • drug elimination
  • drug metabolism
  • drug overdose
  • drug receptor binding
  • ephedrine
  • epidural anesthesia
  • fentanyl
  • glycopyrronium
  • halothane
  • heart ventricle fibrillation
  • heart ventricle tachycardia
  • hypertensive agent
  • hypotension
  • infusion fluid
  • lidocaine
  • local anesthetic agent
  • magnesium
  • medetomidine
  • morphine
  • muscle relaxation
  • neurotoxicity
  • nonhuman
  • opiate
  • opiate receptor
  • oxygen
  • pathogenesis
  • phenobarbital
  • phenylephrine
  • review
  • ropivacaine
  • seizure
  • somatosensory system
  • spinal anesthesia
  • sympathetic blocking
  • thiopental
  • toxicity testing
  • unindexed drug
  • veterinary anatomy
  • veterinary medicine
  • xylazine

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Authors

  • Campoy L.

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