In this study, rat bone marrow cells (RBM) were used to evaluate two biodegradable calcium phosphate bone cements and bioactive calcium phosphate ceramics. The substances investigated were: two novel calcium phosphate cements, Biocement F and Biocement H, tricalcium phosphate (TCP), surface-modified alpha-tricalcium phosphate [TCP (s)] and a rapid resorbable calcium phosphate ceramic consisting of CaKPO(4) (sample code R5). RBM cells were cultured on disc-shaped test substrates for 14 days. The culture medium was changed daily and also examined for calcium, phosphate, and potassium concentrations. Specimens were evaluated using light microscopy, and morphometry of the cell-covered substrate surface, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis and morphometry of the cell-covered substrate surface. Areas of mineralization were identified by tetracyline labeling. Except for R 5, rat bone-marrow cells attached and grew on all substrate surfaces. Of the different calcium phosphate materials tested, TCP and TCP (s) facilitated osteoblast growth and extracellular matrix elaboration to the highest degree, followed by Biocements H and F. The inhibition of cell growth encountered with R 5 seems to be related to its high phosphate and potassium ion release.
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