Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs), have the potential to improve the energy and environmental landscape of personal transportation, but face a hurdle of access to charging infrastructure. Additionally, the types, locations, and quantities of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) that will be required are not well established. This study investigates the charging infrastructure requirements from the perspective of PEV operating cost and BEV feasibility. California was selected as the research region and PEV parameters were selected based on the early deployed vehicles available in the emerging commercial market. To minimize operating cost, an optimal charging strategy based on 24 h travel patterns is proposed. Results indicate that charging time strategy is the most important factor in reducing PEV operating cost while greater numbers of charging locations provide diminishing benefits for PHEVs. Higher charging power capability, combined with an acceptable charging time strategy offer only slight benefits for PHEVs, but charging power is an important factor in increasing BEV functionality and decreasing public charging requirements. The approximation of the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) needed at different types of locations (e.g., home, work place, shopping) is proposed based on an optimal charging strategy. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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