BACKGROUND: Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasitic protozoan which causes most common non viral sexually transmitted disease trichomoniasis. Direct microscopic examination of vaginal fluid remains the most widely used diagnostic test. Although, wet mount examination is the most cost-effective diagnostic test, but it has low sensitivity resulting in under diagnosis of the disease. Therefore, to overcome this problem, various staining techniques like giemsa and acridine orange can be used along with wet mount examination for diagnosis of T. vaginalis infection.
OBJECTIVE: The present study was done to evaluate the efficacy of Giemsa and Acridine Orange staining in comparison with wet mount examination for the diagnosis of vaginal trichomoniasis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 615 female patients of reproductive age group having vaginal discharge were included in the study and swabs containing vaginal fluids were taken to perform wet mount examination, giemsa staining and acridine orange staining.
RESULT: Trichomonas vaginalis infection was detected in 37 patients with maximum cases (6.0%) detected by acridine orange staining, followed by giemsa staining (4.9%), whereas, wet mount examination was able to detect only 4.1% cases. Wet mount examination gave a sensitivity of 67.6%, whereas, the sensitivity of giemsa staining and acridine orange staining was found to be 80% and 100% respectively.
CONCLUSION: Since the performance of both the staining techniques was found to be much better in comparison to wet mount examination, and they also detected several wet mount negative cases, they should be used as an adjunct to wet mount examination. This will also be beneficial to the overall health of the patient by early diagnosis and treatment of cases, thereby, reducing the development of associated morbidity.
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