Insects, both winged and wingless, possess a conserved set of neurons responsible for pioneering major axon pathways in the embryonic CNS and the developmental program for generating those neurons appears to be similarly conserved. There is persuasive evidence that crustacean embryos possess homologues to at least some of these neurons, although it is unclear whether processes of neurogenesis have been conserved between these two arthropod groups. Myriapods, which are traditionally held to be a sister group to the insects, have a pattern of neuronal development which shows many differences to the insect/crustacean plan. I discuss how developmental processes have been altered during evolution to produce differences in neural organization seen both within and between major arthropod groups.
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