Exercise has effects on every system in the human organism, including the immune system. This review outlines the basics of the current state-of-the-art with respect to what is known about the effects of exercise and the immune system. It also explores the implications for clinical medical practice, including susceptibility to infection, susceptibility to neoplasia, implications for monitoring overtraining in athletes, recommendations for exercise in the immune-compromised athlete (specifically, HIV infected), and the field of psychoneuroimmunology. Finally, this article reviews directions for future research in the area of exercise and its effects on the immune system.
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