Exogenous CNTF stimulates axon regeneration of retinal ganglion cells partially via endogenous CNTF

  • Müller A
  • Hauk T
  • Leibinger M
 et al. 
  • 33


    Mendeley users who have this article in their library.
  • 99


    Citations of this article.


Intravitreal injections of exogenous CNTF stimulate axon regeneration of RGCs in vivo. Nevertheless, controversy exists over the ability of exogenous CNTF to directly stimulate axon regeneration of mature RGCs. Here we demonstrate that CNTF potently stimulated axon outgrowth of mature RGCs in culture in a JAK/STAT3- and PI3K/AKT-signaling pathway-dependent fashion and stronger than oncomodulin. Additional cAMP elevation or inhibition of MAPK activity increased these effects. In vivo intravitreal injections of exogenous CNTF induced endogenous CNTF expression in astrocytes in a manner that depended on the MAPK/ERK-signaling pathway activation. Reduction of endogenous CNTF expression by MAPK/ERK pathway inhibitors or its absence in CNTF deficient mice markedly reduced the neurite growth-promoting effects of exogenous CNTF. These data demonstrate that CNTF is a potent axon growth-promoting factor for mature RGCs. However, exogenously applied CNTF stimulates RGCs in vivo partially indirectly via a mechanism that depends on astrocyte-derived CNTF. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Astrocyte
  • Axon regeneration
  • CNS
  • CNTF
  • Lens injury
  • Oncomodulin
  • Optic nerve
  • Retinal ganglion cells
  • STAT3

Get free article suggestions today

Mendeley saves you time finding and organizing research

Sign up here
Already have an account ?Sign in

Find this document


  • Adrienne Müller

  • Thomas G. Hauk

  • Marco Leibinger

  • Ralf Marienfeld

  • Dietmar Fischer

Cite this document

Choose a citation style from the tabs below

Save time finding and organizing research with Mendeley

Sign up for free