By engineering the internal structure of artificial materials it is possible to reproduce effective electromagnetic properties, including some which were previously unavailable in nature. Since the first experimental demonstration of artificial composites with exotic electromagnetic properties at microwaves less than 10 years ago, metamaterials has emerged as a rapidly growing multidisciplinary branch of science and engineering. Significant efforts have been placed in scaling the response of metamaterials to optical frequencies as well as demonstrate pertinent applications of the newly available technology. In this article we review recent developments in the area of experimental realisation of electromagnetic metamaterials and their applications.
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