Giere (2002) invokes findings from the PDP (parallel distributed processing) Research Group during the 1980s (McClelland & Rumelhart, 1986), Dynamic Systems Theory (Thelan & Smith, 1994), and conceptions from evolutionary psychology (Clark, 1997; Suchman, 1987; Varela, Thompson & Rosch, 1993) to support this contention. [...] individuals need external devices to think with (e.g. calculators, formulae and spectrometers in chemistry; microscopes in biology; oscilloscopes in physics; reaction times and facial reactions in psychology) and it is only in the presence of these tools, grounded within the conditions for which they are employed, can cognition be successfully deployed.
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