We have investigated immunohistochemically the expression of CD40 in post-mortem human brain tissues. In control brain, the blood vessels were stained weakly for CD40. Vascular expression of CD40 was enhanced in the lesions of Alzheimer's disease and some other neurological diseases. In such diseases, reactive microglia were also positive for CD40. The results of this study suggest that CD40 expression by microglia is up-regulated upon a variety of brain insults and is not limited to lesions with amyloid β-protein deposits. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.
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