In this paper we introduce TFMCC, an equation-based multicast congestion control mechanism that extends the TCP-friendly TFRC protocol from the unicast to the multicast domain. The key chal- lenges in the design of TFMCClie in scalable round-trip time mea- surements, appropriate feedback suppression, and in ensuring that feedback delays in the control loop do not adversely affect fairness towards competing flows. A major contribution is the feedback mechanism, the key component of end-to-end multicast congestion control schemes. We improve upon the well-known approach of us- ing exponentially weighted random timers by biasing feedback in favor of low-rate receivers while still preventing a response implo- sion. We evaluate the design using simulation, and demonstrate that TFMCC is both TCP-friendly and scales well to multicast groups with thousands of receivers. We also investigate TFMCC’s weak- nesses and scaling limits to provide guidance as to application do- mains for which it is well suited.
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