Human factors, vol. 33, issue 1 (1991) pp. 69-83
Without fixation stimuli--for instance, in darkness--accommodation and convergence of the eyes reach an intermediate state that is relatively stable within a subject but which ranges from about 30 cm to infinity across subjects. This study investigated whether these oculomotor positions in darkness are related to visual strain. During work at a visual display unit (VDU), visual strain at a viewing distance of 50 cm was stronger than at 100 cm (with characters twice as large). The more distant the individual's dark convergence, the greater was the visual strain at the 50-cm viewing distance. When subjects were free to adjust the viewing distance to their comfort level, they chose distances between 51 and 99 cm (mean 74 cm) with characters 5 mm tall.
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