Microchannels are primarily used in biomedical devices and microfluidic applications. Fabrication of microchannels has always been a tough task using conventional manufacturing technologies. Various types of materials are in use for fabricating microchannels in different types of applications including metals, polymers and ceramics. A number of methods are in use for fabricating different types of microchannels. These processes include both conventional and nonconventional fabrication techniques such as micromilling, lithography, embossing processes and laser ablation processing. During the recent years, some hybrid techniques have also been developed for fabrication of microchannels. This survey of various literatures reveals a broad spectrum of different processes used for fabricating microchannels. Currently, laser micromachining has been evolved as a potential technology for fabricating microchannels. Laser processing has been proved to be the most time efficient and clean. In this article, fabrication processes for creating microchannels have been reviewed with special emphasis on laser micromachining. This article mostly addresses the fabrication techniques for creating surface microchannels.
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