NSSE focuses on student engagement and participation in effective educational experiences, thus some of the items on the survey measure activities which indicate deep learning approaches. In 2005, Nelson Laird, Shoup and Kuh conducted a study that identified a second order factor solution with three subscales for facets of deep learning. These included high order learning (4 items), integrative learning (5 items), and reflective learning (3 items). These subscales were then combined into one larger scale called deep learning. The purpose of this study was to replicate their study using 2009 data to find out if this structure fits with more recent data.
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