The scope of this study was to evaluate the use of oral health services (OHS) and related factors in municipalities with more than 100,000 inhabitants in Maranhão, Brazil. It was a population-based sample including 1214 children and 1059 adults. Prevalence ratios (PR) were estimated by hierarchical Poisson regression in accordance with Andersen's theoretical model. Over 91% of children and 71.9% of adults had not used the OHS in the six months prior to the interview. Of those who did, 48.5% were attended in the Unified Health System (SUS). Preventive were more frequent than curative procedures. In children and adults, predisposing, facilitating and need-based factors explained the use of OHS. Children aged >2 years (PR=5.29), with greater schooling of the head of the household (PR=2.37), e"6 prenatal visits (PR=1.69) and dental treatment needs (PR=9.54) were associated with greater use of the OHS. In adults, use was associated with greater schooling (PR=2.26), economic class A/B (PR=1.38), self-perceived health as good/very good (PR=1.72) and need for treatment (PR=18.25). The use of the OHS is neither universal nor equitable and there are deficiencies in comprehensive care, as few people use the more complex services. Fewer prenatal visits appear to be a predictor of non-use of the OHS by children.
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