Fatty acid analysis of wild ruminant tissues : evolutionary implications for reducing diet - related chronic disease

  • Cordain L
  • Watkins B
  • Florant G
 et al. 
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Abstract

See, stats, and : http : / / www . researchgate . net / publication / 11407676 Fatty : Evolutionary - related ARTICLE Impact : 2 . 71 : 10. 1038 / sj . ejcn . 1601307 : PubMed CITATIONS 111 READS 26 6 , INCLUDING : Bruce University , Davis 158 , 833 SEE Marguerite University 60 , 488 SEE Available : Marguerite Retrieved : 01 Hypotheses : Consumption of wild ruminant fat represented the primary lipid source for pre - agricultural humans . Hence , the lipid composition of these animals ' tissues may provide insight into dietary requirements that offer protection from chronic disease in modern humans . Method : We examined the lipid composition of muscle , brain , marrow and subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) from 17 elk (Cervus elaphus) , 15 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) , and 17 antelope (Antilicapra americana) and contrasted them to wild African ruminants and pasture and grain - fed cattle . Results : Muscle fatty acid (FA) was similar among North American species with polyunsaturated fatty acids=saturated fatty acids (P=S) values from 0 . 80 to 1 . 09 and n - 6=n - 3 FA from 2 . 32 to 2 . 60 . Marrow FA was similar among North American species with high levels (59 . 3 – 67 . 0%) of monounsaturated FA ; a low P=S (0 . 24 – 0 . 33) , and an n - 6=n - 3 of 2 . 24 – 2 . 88 . Brain had the lowest n - 6=n - 3 (1 . 20 – 1 . 29) , the highest concentration of 22 : 6 n - 3 (elk , 8 . 90% ; deer , 9 . 62% ; antelope , 9 . 25%) and a P=S of 0 . 69 . AT had the lowest P=S (0 . 05 – 0 . 09) and n - 6=n - 3 (2 . 25 – 2 . 96) . Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers were found in marrow of antelope (1 . 5%) , elk (1 . 0%) and deer (1 . 0%) , in AT (deer , 0 . 3% ; antelope , 0 . 3%) in muscle (antelope , 0 . 4% ; elk , trace) , but not in brain . Conclusions : Literature comparisons showed tissue lipids of North American and African ruminants were similar to pasture - fed cattle , but dissimilar to grain - fed cattle . The lipid composition of wild ruminant tissues may serve as a model for dietary lipid recommendations in treating and preventing chronic disease .

Author-supplied keywords

  • CLA
  • diet
  • evolution
  • fatty acids
  • wild game tissues

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Authors

  • L Cordain

  • Ba Watkins

  • Gl Florant

  • M Kelher

  • L Rogers

  • Y Li

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