Fear induced complexity loss in the electrocardiogram of flight phobics: A multiscale entropy analysis

  • Bornas X
  • Llabrés J
  • Noguera M
 et al. 
  • 43


    Mendeley users who have this article in their library.
  • 31


    Citations of this article.


In this study we explored the changes in the variability and complexity of the electrocardiogram (ECG) of flight phobics (N = 61) and a matched non-phobic control group (N = 58) when they performed a paced breathing task and were exposed to flight related stimuli. Lower complexity/entropy values were expected in phobics as compared to controls. The phobic system complexity as well as the heart rate variability (HRV) were expected to be reduced by the exposure to fearful stimuli. The multiscale entropy (MSE) analysis revealed lower entropy values in phobics during paced breathing and exposure, and a complexity loss was observed in phobics during exposure to threatening situations. The expected HRV decreases were not found in this study. The discussion is focused on the distinction between variability and complexity measures of the cardiac output, and on the usefulness of the MSE analysis in the field of anxiety disorders. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Complexity
  • Flight phobia
  • Heart rate variability
  • Multiscale entropy analysis

Get free article suggestions today

Mendeley saves you time finding and organizing research

Sign up here
Already have an account ?Sign in

Find this document


  • XAVIER BORNASUniversitat de les Illes Balears

  • Jordi Llabrés

  • Miquel Noguera

  • Ana Ma López

  • Joan Miquel Gelabert

  • Irene Vila

Cite this document

Choose a citation style from the tabs below

Save time finding and organizing research with Mendeley

Sign up for free